6 thoughts on “How To Bandage A Wound

  1. ciclosporin, also spelled cyclosporine and cyclosporin, is a calcineurin inhibitor, used as an immunosuppressant medication. it is a natural product. it is taken by mouth or by injection into a vein for rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, crohn’s disease, nephrotic syndrome, and in organ transplants to prevent rejection. it is also used as eye drops for keratoconjunctivitis sicca (dry eyes).

    common side effects include high blood pressure, headache, kidney problems, increased hair growth, and vomiting. other severe side effects include an increased risk of infection, liver problems, and an increased risk of lymphoma. blood levels of the medication should be checked to decrease the risk of side effects. use during pregnancy may result in preterm birth; however, ciclosporin does not appear to cause birth defects.

    ciclosporin is believed to work by decreasing the function of lymphocytes. it does this by forming a complex with cyclophilin to block the phosphatase activity of calcineurin, which in turn decreases the production of inflammatory cytokines by t-lymphocytes.

    ciclosporin was isolated in 1971 from the fungus tolypocladium inflatum and came into medical use in 1983. it is on the world health organization’s list of essential medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system. in 2017, it was the 248th most commonly prescribed medication in the united states, with more than one million prescriptions that year.

    medical uses
    ciclosporin is approved by the fda to treat and prevent graft-versus-host disease in bone marrow transplantation and to prevent rejection of kidney, heart, and liver transplants. it is also approved in the us for treating of rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis, persistent nummular keratitis following adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis, and as eye drops for treating dry eyes caused by sj?gren’s syndrome and meibomian gland dysfunction.

    in addition to these indications, ciclosporin is also used in severe atopic dermatitis, kimura disease, pyoderma gangrenosum, chronic hives, acute systemic mastocytosis, and posterior or intermediate uveitis with noninfective cause.needed] it is also used, albeit infrequently, in severe rheumatoid arthritis and related diseases.needed]

    ciclosporin has also been used in people with acute severe ulcerative colitis and hives that do not respond to treatment with steroids.

  2. procarbazine is a chemotherapy medication used for the treatment of hodgkin’s lymphoma and brain cancers. for hodgkin’s it is often used together with chlormethine, vincristine, and prednisone while for brain cancers such as glioblastoma multiforme it is used with lomustine and vincristine. it is typically taken by mouth.

    common side effect include low blood cell counts and vomiting. other side effects include tiredness and depression. it is not recommended in people with severe liver or kidney problems. use in pregnancy is known to harm the baby. procarbazine is in the alkylating agents family of medication. how it works is not clearly known.

    procarbazine was approved for medical use in the united states in 1969. it is on the world health organization’s list of essential medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system. in the united kingdom a month of treatment cost the nhs 450 to 750 pounds.

    medical uses
    when used to treat hodgkin’s lymphoma, it is often delivered as part of the beacopp regimen that includes bleomycin, etoposide, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine (tradename oncovin), prednisone, and procarbazine. the first combination chemotherapy developed for hodgkin’s lymphoma (hl), mopp also included procarbazine (abvd has supplanted mopp as standard first line treatment for hl, with beacopp as an alternative for advanced/unfavorable hl). alternatively, when used to treat certain brain tumors (malignant gliomas), it is often dosed as pcv when combined with lomustine (often called ccnu) and vincristine.

    dose should be adjusted for kidney disease or liver disease.

    side effects
    very common (greater than 10% of people experience them) adverse effects include loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting. other side effects of unknown frequency include reduction in leukocytes, reduction in platelets, reduction in neutrophils, which can lead to increased infections including lung infections; severe allergy-like reactions that can lead to angioedema and skin reactions; lethargy; liver complications including jaundice and abnormal liver function tests; reproductive effects including reduction in sperm count and ovarian failure.

    when combined with ethanol, procarbazine may cause a disulfiram-like reaction in some people.

    it weakly inhibits mao in the gastrointestinal system, so it can cause hypertensive crises if associated with the ingestion of tyramine-rich foods such as aged cheeses; this appears to be rare.

    procarbazine rarely causes chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy, a progressive, enduring, often irreversible tingling numbness, intense pain, and hypersensitivity to cold, beginning in the hands and feet and sometimes involving the arms and legs.

  3. dalbavancin (inn, trade names dalvance in the us and xydalba in the eu) is a novel second-generation lipoglycopeptide antibiotic medication. it belongs to the same class as vancomycin, the most widely used and one of the few treatments available to patients infected with methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa).

    dalbavancin is a semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide that was designed to improve upon the natural glycopeptides currently available, vancomycin and teicoplanin..it is derived from a complex of glycopeptide antibiotics, referred to as a-40926, that is produced by a new strain of actinomadura. dalbavancin has been referred to in the scientific literature by a series of names: mdl-63397, a-!-1, bi-397, ver-001. these different labels reflected where the research had been carried out: mdl representing merrell-dow-lepetit, where the initial complex was discovered; bi referring to biosearch italia where dalbavancin itself was first synthesized; ver referring to versicor (which biosearch italia merged with to create vicuron pharmaceuticals). the phase 1, 2 and 3 clinical trials were carried out of by vicuron and the initial nda filed. vicuron was acquired by pfizer in 2005, which decided to not further develop dalbavancin at that time, subsequently selling the rights to durata therapeutics in 2009.

    it possesses in vitro activity against a variety of gram-positive pathogens including mrsa and methicillin-resistant staphylococcus epidermidis (mrse). it is a once-weekly, two-dose antibiotic, the rights to which actavis acquired when it bought durata therapeutics in 2014.

    the u.s. food and drug administration (fda) approved dalbavancin in may 2014, for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (absssis) caused by certain susceptible bacteria such as staphylococcus aureus including methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant strains of streptococcus pyogenes, in intravenous dosage form.

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